The case concerned an asylum request submitted by a Turkish couple of Kurdish ethnicity, which was refused by the Commissioner General for Refugees and Stateless Persons CGRA , due to lack of credibility. The husband had escaped Turkey, in order to avoid military conscription and persecution due to his political affiliations. More specifically, the applicant had not elaborated on the reasons of his draft evasion, which was found not to amount to conscientious objection to military service. The CGRA also failed to properly address the fact that the applicant indeed had not completed his military service. In this connection, it was observed that the applicant did not want to participate in the military, as this could mean his engagement in armed conflict against the Kurdish rebellious forces. The Council noted that the ethnic-centred reason of this objection to military service may approach the concept of conscientious objection. The Court ruled that the combination of the aforementioned characteristics establish a reasonable fear of persecution in the sense of the Geneva Convention and annulled the contested decision. The purpose of these updates is to inform asylum lawyers and legal organizations supporting asylum seekers and refugees of recent developments in the field of asylum law. Please note that the information provided is taken from publicly available information on the internet.
Iraqi Kurdistan profile – timeline
Since the s, but particularly from the s onwards, successive Iraqi administrations have forcibly displaced hundreds of thousands of ethnic Kurds, Turkomans a Turkish-speaking Iraqi minority , and Assyrians from northern Iraq, and repopulated the area with Arabs moved from central and southern Iraq. The massive forced displacement of Kurdish families from northern Iraq is not synonymous with Arabization, as armed conflict and the genocidal Anfal campaign of also accounted for large numbers of displaced Kurds.
But even when Kurds were displaced by armed conflict or the Anfal campaign, the Iraqi government often ensured that their displacement became permanent and brought in Arab settlers to take over their homes. For the hundreds of thousands of Kurds displaced from their homes by Arabization, armed conflict, and genocide in Iraq, their continued displacement represents a crime that must be redressed.
date of the publication. While every effort has tan Region of Iraq”, hosted by the University of Kurd- ciples of good governance and the rule of law.2 Since the.
From to , they helped overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein, battled al-Qaeda , and pushed the Islamic State out of northern Iraq and Syria. In recent weeks, some of these same fierce fighters have been violently clashing with Turkish troops in the Syrian Kurdish enclave of Afrin. Reports of chemical weapons and a high civilian death toll are now emerging from the conflict zone. Hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced. In all of these battles, Kurdish women have fought on the front lines , as they have done since the 19th-century Kurdish commander Kara Fatma led an Ottoman battalion of men and 43 women.
That was unusual for the period—but, then again, Kurdish women have long been exceptions in the mostly conservative Middle East. So who, exactly, are the Kurds? And why do Kurdish women enjoy significantly more freedoms than many other Muslim women in the Middle East? Kurdistan, where I was born, is among the largest nations in the world without a state. The Kurds were first split up politically in the 17th century, when their territory was divided between the Ottoman and Safavid empires.
Already at that time, the Roman scholar Pietro Della Valle traveled to the region and was surprised to find “Kurdish women commuting freely without hijab. The partition again fragmented the Kurds, this time across four countries: modern-day Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria.
On Kurdish Culture
The present study attempts to analysis the spatial transformations in the urban environment scale by utilizing the natural step foresight approach in the context of urban environment indicators. To obtain this goal, the methods applied herein included descriptive-analytical studies, document and questionnaire in the frame of Delphi model and software analyzes. Initial discussions were held with 50 academic elites and executives in Saqqez city as the statistical population, followed by the identification of 78 variables in the frame of 16 general classifications.
The results showed that the obtained fill rate was equal to According to the findings, the integrated urban environmental management index ME4 with scores had uppermost direct impact on other variables.
Feminists Kurds are extremely active but they have succeeded in changing merely the internal behavior ways of the culture. They have tried to change laws.
As elsewhere in war-torn Syria, the collapse of established state institutions in the northern, largely Kurdish areas has left a gaping legal and judicial vacuum in its wake. In the cities of Qamishli and Hasakah in northeastern Syria, official courts are still operating in the enclaves controlled by the Syrian regime. However, while they continue to serve the local community in some ways, for example by producing official documents, there is no police force to carry out arrests on their behalf.
One of the limitations of these courts is the lack of trained prosecutors and judges, as almost no Kurds were accepted for these professions in the Syrian Baath system. There is a large pool of Kurdish defense attorneys available, but these individuals would need extensive training to assume new roles in a professional manner. There is also the urgent issue of which law to apply.
Turkey: Court orders pro-Kurdish leader Demirtas released
Kurd , member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in the Taurus Mountains of southeastern Anatolia , the Zagros Mountains of western Iran , portions of northern Iraq , northeastern Syria , and western Armenia , and other adjacent areas. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, Georgia , Kazakhstan , Lebanon , Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differing criteria of ethnicity , religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.
The traditional Kurdish way of life was nomadic , revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning after World War I —18 impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled farming; others entered nontraditional employment.
Publish Date: ; Publication Title: Introduction to the Laws of Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan; Publisher: Stanford Law School; Format: Working Paper; Citation(s).
Aug 28 8 Elul Torah Portion. Kurds are one of the oldest and largest ethnic groups in the Middle East. For hundreds of years they have called an area encompassing parts of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran and Armenia home. Promised an independent homeland by Western powers in , they have never achieved a state of their own. Instead, distinctive Kurdish communities have maintained Kurdish culture and language in a number of countries, often in the face of hatred and violence from neighboring ethnic groups and central governments.
The modern-day region of Kurdistan.
Join over organisations already creating a better workplace. You can download this cultural profile in an easy-to-read PDF format that can be printed out and accessed at any time. The figure of the total population of each country is drawn from the global estimates listed in the CIA World Factbook , unless otherwise stated. All other statistical information on the demographics of the migrant population in Australia is based on the Australian Housing and Population Census.
Familiarize yourself with these Turkish customs and etiquette rules and enjoy the cultural differences while visiting Istanbul without being rude or a fool.
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Syrian Kurdish Areas Under the Rule of Law?
Situation Update. Keep watching this page for updates on the current situation in the Kurdistan Region. For information on what the coronavirus is and how to protect yourself against it, see Coronavirus : What you should know. To keep the Kurdistan Region as safe as possible from the coronavirus, the following measures have been put in place by the KRG and relevant ministries. Iraqi citizens can return home via Ibrahim Khalil Border Crossing, but foreign nationals have to ger permission from the Ministry of Interior.
Iraqi citizens can travel to Turkey only for medical purposes, trade and study.
The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq has been relatively 1 The government’s so-called Law of Self-Rule (No. Kurds’s share of the population is less than has been assumed to date (based on other measures.
Share via:. When viewing Iran, the locus of international attention remains fixed on the quarrelsome condition of U. The domestic political landscape in Iran, specifically the numerous ethnic and sectarian minorities in the country, is also beginning to draw more attention. Through collective displays of peaceful activism to organized campaigns of violence, a number of movements purporting to stand for the interests of ethnic and sectarian minority communities who see themselves as victims of state-directed oppression are increasingly capturing the spotlight.
This article explores the circumstances behind the rise of PJAK in the context of Kurdish identity and nationalism in Iran, the range of tactics and operations employed by PJAK, and weighs the impact of Middle East geopolitics on Kurdish militancy in Iran. The rugged terrain remains a PKK stronghold. Having abandoned a number of unilateral cease-fires with Ankara over the years, the PKK regrouped and returned to armed struggle following the U. The federalization of Iraq, which elevated the political status of Iraqi Kurds, emboldened the cause of Kurdish nationalism in the region, serving to inspire Kurds in Iran to take up arms against Tehran sometime in to achieve self-rule.
Threatened by the prospect of a resurgent Kurdish nationalism, both Turkey and Iran have targeted the region through airstrikes and heavy artillery, and deployed special operations forces to root out Kurdish insurgents representing both the PKK and PJAK. As a result, Iranian Kurds of all faiths tended to support the Iranian revolution that ousted the Shah in
Belgium – CALL rules in a case of draft evasion by a Turkish applicant of Kurdish background
Authors: Romano , David, Gurses , Mehmet. In Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, central governments historically pursued mono-nationalist ideologies and repressed Kurdish identity. As evidenced by much unrest and a great many Kurdish revolts in all these states since the s, however, the Kurds manifested strong resistance towards ethnic chauvinism.
What sorts of authoritarian state policies have Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria relied on to contain the Kurds over the years?
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Knowledge about the early history of Kurdish women is limited by both the dearth of records and the near absence of research. In 16th century , Prince Sharaf ad-Din Bitlisi wrote a book titled Sharafnama , which makes references to the women of the ruling landowning class, and their exclusion from public life and the exercise of state power.
It says that the Kurds of the Ottoman Empire, who follow Islamic tradition , took four wives and, if they could afford it, four maids or slave girls. This regime of polygyny was, however, practiced by a minority, which included primarily the members of the ruling landowning class, the nobility, and the religious establishment. Sharaf ad-Din Bitlisi also mentioned three Kurdish women assuming power in Kurdish principalities after the death of their husbands in order to transfer it to their sons upon their adulthood.
In the late 19th century, Lady Halima Khanim of Hakkari was the ruler of Bash Kala until she was forced to surrender to the Ottoman government after the suppression of the Bedir Khan revolt in A young Kurdish woman named Fatma became chief of the Ezdinan tribe in and she was known among her tribe as the queen.
Conflict, Democratization, and the Kurds in the Middle East
After graduating college in , I wanted to teach in the Middle East. Somehow, through various connections in the region, I found myself working in a private elementary school in Iraqi Kurdistan. I arrived ignorant, but ready to learn. While I was there, I discovered a world that was entirely new to me, and I explored various facets of the society I was living in.
According to Kurdish traditions, a man has the right to marry his paternal uncle’s daughter. Any arrangement contrary to this rule must be negotiated between the.
CNN Here’s some background information about the Kurdish people. Kurds do not have an official homeland or country. Most reside within countries in the Middle East including northern Iraq , eastern Turkey, western Iran and small portions of northern Syria and Armenia. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds. Kurdish people show their support for the upcoming referendum for independence of Kurdistan at a rally on September 21, , in Erbil, Iraq.
Population: approximately million some Kurds reside outside of Kurdistan. Read More. Kurds have never achieved nation-state status, making Kurdistan a non-governmental region and one of the largest stateless nations in the world. Portions of the region are recognized by two countries: Iran, where the province of Kordestan lies; and northern Iraq, site of the autonomous region known as Kurdistan Regional Government KRG or Iraqi Kurdistan. The Peshmerga is a more than ,strong national military force which protects Iraqi Kurdistan , and includes female fighters.
It calls for the recognition of new independent states, including an autonomous Kurdistan. It is never ratified. In the final treaty marking the conclusion of World War I, the Allies drop demands for an autonomous Turkish Kurdistan.